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What is Investment?

Investing involves directing financial resources towards projects with the expectation of achieving a positive return over an extended period. Read ahead to know all about investment.

  • 2,949 Views | Updated on: Mar 14, 2024

Key takeaways

  • Investing in real estate involves purchasing properties with the expectation of appreciation in their value over time.
  • One of the primary reasons people invest is to grow their wealth over time.
  • A well-structured investment portfolio can reduce risk through diversification.
  • Return on Investment (ROI) is a financial metric used to evaluate the profitability of an investment or project.

Investment is a concept that plays a crucial role in the world of finance and economics. It is a term that many people have heard but may not fully understand. In this article, we will explore the meaning of investment, its various forms, and why it is an essential aspect of personal finance and economic growth.

What is Investment?

Investment refers to the allocation of resources, like money, with the expectation of generating future income or profit. It involves the purchase or creation of assets that have the potential to appreciate in value or generate returns over time. Investments can take many forms, from stocks and bonds to real estate and business ventures.

Benefits of investment plan

Types of Investments

There are several common types of investments, each with its own characteristics, risk levels, and potential returns. Here are some of the most prevalent forms of investment:


When you buy shares of a company’s stock, you become a partial owner of that company. Stockholders can benefit from both capital appreciation (an increase in the stock’s price) and dividends (a portion of the company’s profits distributed to shareholders).


Bonds are debt securities issued by governments or corporations. When you purchase a bond, you are essentially lending money to the issuer in exchange for periodic interest payments and the return of the bond’s face value when it matures.

Real Estate

Investing in real estate involves purchasing properties with the expectation of appreciation in their value over time. Real estate can generate rental income and capital gains when properties are sold.

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds pool money from multiple investors to invest in a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other assets. They offer diversification and professional management.

Why Invest?

Investing is a powerful tool that has the potential to transform your financial future. Here are several compelling reasons to invest:

Wealth Growth

One of the primary reasons people invest is to grow their wealth over time. Investments have the potential to outpace inflation and increase your purchasing power.

Financial Goals

Investing can help individuals achieve specific financial goals, such as retirement planning, buying a home, funding education, or starting a business.

Passive Income

Certain investments, like rental properties or dividend-paying stocks, can generate regular passive income streams, providing financial security.

What is Return on Investment?

Return on Investment (ROI) is a financial metric used to evaluate the profitability of an investment or project. It measures the gain or loss generated relative to the initial investment cost. The formula for calculating ROI is as follows:

ROI = (Net Profit / Initial Investment) x 100%


Net Profit is the total earnings or benefits gained from the investment.

Initial Investment is the total cost of the investment.


Suppose you are considering investing in a rental property. You purchase a rental property for ₹200,000, and over the course of a year, you earn ₹20,000 in rental income. Additionally, you incur expenses such as property taxes, maintenance, and mortgage interest, totalling ₹8,000 for the year.

To calculate the ROI for this rental property investment, you can use the formula:

First, calculate the Net Profit:

Net Profit = Rental Income - Expenses

Net Profit = ₹20,000 - ₹8,000

Net Profit = ₹12,000

Now, plug the values into the ROI formula:

ROI = (₹12,000 / ₹200,000) x 100%

ROI = (0.06) x 100%

ROI = 6%

The ROI for this rental property investment is 6%. This means that for every dollar invested in the property, you earned a 6% return in profit over the course of one year.

Final Thoughts

Investment is a fundamental financial concept that allows individuals and organizations to build wealth, achieve financial goals, and secure their financial future. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced investor, understanding the various types of investments and their associated risks and returns is essential to make informed decisions. It is important to remember that all investments carry some level of risk, and it is crucial to align your investment choices with your financial goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon.

- A Consumer Education Initiative series by Kotak Life

Amit Raje
Written By :
Amit Raje

Amit Raje is an experienced marketer who has worked in various Fintechs and leading Financial companies in India. With focused experience in Digital, Amit has pioneered multiple digital commerce in India. Now, close to two decades later, he is the vice president and head of the D2C business department. He masters the skill of strategic management, also being certified in it from IIMA. He has challenged his challenges and contributed his efforts in this journey of digital transformation.

Amit Raje
Reviewed By :
Prasad Pimple

Prasad Pimple has a decade-long experience in the Life insurance sector and as EVP, Kotak Life heads Digital Business. He is responsible for developing user friendly product journeys, creating consumer awareness and helping consumers in identifying need for life insurance solutions. He has 20+ years of experience in creating and building business verticals across Insurance, Telecom and Banking sectors

In this policy, the investment risk in the investment portfolio is borne by the policyholder.

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